preparing for the exhibition at Skolska Gallery, Prague
Out Of Season Exhibition
Georges Lakhovsky was a Russian engineer, scientist, author and inventor. His controversial medical treatment invention, the Multiple Wave Oscillator, is described as having been used by him in the treatment of cancer.
In 1925 Lakhovsky wrote a Radio News Magazine article entitled “Curing Cancer With Ultra Radio Frequencies.” In 1929 while in France he was the author of a book “The Secret of Life: Electricity, Radiation and Your Body” (French) in which he claimed and attempted to demonstrate that good or bad health was determined by the relative health of these cellular oscillations, and bacteria, cancers, and other pathogens corrupted them, causing interference with these oscillations. It was translated to English in 1935. ented the Multiple Wave Oscillator that Lakhovsky claimed would revitalize and strengthen the health of cells. The device consisted of two broadband antennae (a sending and a receiving pair) composed of concentric sets of curved open-ended copper pieces suspended / held in place by silk threads, two metal stands to hold the two antennae, Oudin coil(s), and electromagnetic spark / pulse generator. In June 1934 he was awarded U.S. patent 1962565 for the device. In 1932, Georges Lakhovsky used aluminium and in some models multi metal, air filled tubes bent into nested circular dipoles for the antennae in his Multi-Wave Oscillator.
more information: here
A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of a conductor such as copper and that of an insulator such as glass. Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of electrons and holes inside a lattice. An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of integrated semiconductor devices, an effect known as Moore’s Law.
The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor material increases with increasing temperature, which is behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Semiconductor devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat. Because the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by controlled addition of impurities, or by the application of electrical fields or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion.
Current conduction in a semiconductor occurs through the movement of free electrons and “holes”, collectively known as charge carriers. Adding impurity atoms to a semiconducting material, known as “doping”, greatly increases the number of charge carriers within it. When a doped semiconductor contains mostly free holes it is called “p-type”, and when it contains mostly free electrons it is known as “n-type”. The semiconductor materials used in electronic devices are doped under precise conditions to control the location and concentration of p- and n-type dopants. A single semiconductor crystal can have many p- and n-type regions; the p–n junctions between these regions are responsible for the useful electronic behaviour.
Some of the properties of semiconductor materials were observed throughout the mid 19th and first decades of the 20th century. Development of quantum physics in turn allowed the development of the transistor in 1948. Although some pure elements and many compounds display semiconductor properties, silicon, germanium, and compounds of gallium are the most widely used in electronic devices.
When sunlight hits the electrons in the cuprous oxide, some of the electrons gain enough energy from the sunlight to jump past the bandgap and become free to conduct electricity.
The free electrons move into the saltwater, then into the clean copper plate, into the wire, through the meter, and back to the cuprous oxide plate.
As the electrons move through the meter, they perform the work needed to move the needle. When a shadow falls on the solar cell, fewer electrons move through the meter, and the needle dips back down.
The piezoresistive effect of semiconductor materials can be several orders of magnitudes larger than the geometrical effect and is present in materials like germanium, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, silicon carbide, and single crystal silicon. Hence, semiconductor strain gauges with a very high coefficient of sensitivity can be built. For precision measurements they are more difficult to handle than metal strain gauges, because semiconductor strain gauges are generally more sensitive to environmental conditions (esp. temperature).
The piezoresistive effect of semiconductors has been used for sensor devices employing all kinds of semiconductor materials such as germanium, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and single crystal silicon. Since silicon is today the material of choice for integrated digital and analog circuits the use of piezoresistive silicon devices has been of great interest. It enables the easy integration of stress sensors with Bipolar and CMOS circuits.
" The two fundamental forms of substance, ponderable matter and ether, are not dead and only moved by extrinsic force, but they are endowed with sensation and will (though, naturally, of the lowest grade); they experience an inclination for condensation, a dislike of strain; they strive after the one and struggle against the other"
" It is something akin to vibrations in the ether that our skin and our eyes feel "
"Just as the rigidity of the ether is of a purely electric character, and is not felt mechanically—since mechanically it is perfectly fluid,—so its density is likewise of an electromagnetic character, and again is not felt mechanically, because it cannot be moved by mechanical means. It is by far the most stationary body in existence; though it is endowed with high intrinsic energy of local movement, analogous to turbulence, conferring on it gyrostatic properties. "
The recordings were made during my residency in Prague (in Stromovka to be precise) using home-build VLF receiver. I managed to capture some interesting sounds including radio station. (the strongest radio signal was in the bushes on the top of the hill)
Aether theories in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether, a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces. The assorted aether theories embody the various conceptions of this “medium” and “substance”.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity. In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum, but evidence for the presence of such a medium was not found in the Michelson-Morley experiment.
Sir Oliver Lodge is probably best known for his advocacy and elaboration of Maxwell’s aether theory – a later deprecated model postulating a wave-bearing medium filling all space. He explained his views on the aether in “Modern Views of Electricity” (1889) and continued to defend those ideas well into the twentieth century (“Ether and Reality”, 1925).
Scientific work on electromagnetic radiation convinced Lodge that an ether existed and that it filled the entire universe. Lodge came to believe that the spirit world existed in the ether. As a Christian Spiritualist, Lodge had written that the resurrection in the Bible referred to Christ’s etheric body becoming visible to his disciples after the Crucifixion. By the 1920s the physics of the ether had been undermined by the theory of relativity, however, Lodge still defended his ether theory and rejected relativity.
Sir Oliver Lodges’s Ether Machine
Making series of recordings in Prokopskie Udoli, Prague, using various VLF and All Band receivers. Currently working on other ones using Loop Antennas. Unfortunately I could hear mostly loads of hum and feedback between the antenna and the output. In order to improve it ground wire must be stabilised.
link to schematics here
Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 kHz to 30kHz and wavelengths from 10 to 100 kilometres. Since there is not much bandwidth in this band of the radio spectrum, audio (voice) cannot be transmitted, and only low data rate coded signals are used. The VLF band is used for a few radio navigation services, government time radio stations which broadcast time signals to set radio clocks, and for secure military communication. Since VLF waves penetrate about 40 meters into saltwater, they are used for military communication with submarines. Also known as the myriametre band ormyriametre wave as the wavelengths range from one to ten myriametres (an obsolete metric unit equal to 10 kilometres).
A sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID) is an abnormally high ionization/plasma density in the D region of the ionosphere caused by a solar flare. The SID results in a sudden increase in radio-wave absorption that is most severe in the upper medium frequency (MF) and lower high frequency (HF) ranges, and as a result often interrupts or interferes with telecommunications systems.
When a solar flare occurs on the Sun a blast of intense ultraviolet and x-ray radiation hits the dayside of the Earth after a propagation time of about 8 minutes. This high energy radiation is absorbed by atmospheric particles, raising them to excited states and knocking electrons free in the process ofphotoionization. The low altitude ionospheric layers (D region and E region) immediately increase in density over the entire dayside. The ionospheric disturbance enhances VLF radio propagation. Scientists on the ground can use this enhancement to detect solar flares; by monitoring the signal strength of a distant VLF transmitter, sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are recorded and indicate when solar flares have taken place.
Short wave radio waves (in the HF range) are absorbed by the increased particles in the low altitude ionosphere causing a complete blackout of radio communications. This is called a short wave fading. These fadeouts last for a few minutes to a few hours and are most severe in the equatorial regions where the Sun is most directly overhead. The ionospheric disturbance enhances long wave (VLF) radio propagation. SIDs are observed and recorded by monitoring the signal strength of a distant VLF transmitter. A whole array of sub-classes of SIDs exist, detectable by different techniques at various wavelengths: the SPA (Sudden Phase Anomaly), SFD (Sudden Frequency Deviation), SCNA (Sudden Cosmic Noise Absorption), SEA (Sudden Enhancement of Atmospherics), etc.
METEOR ECHOES : The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar has been shut down, but we’re still recording meteor echos. How do we do it? Radio engineer Stan Nelson uses a Yagi antenna in New Mexico to detect 54 MHz TV signals reflected from meteor trails. When a meteor passes over his observatory—ping!—there is an echo. It’s the next best thing to a giant government radar!
Homemade superheterodyne receiver 1920